10 Things to Know Before the Procedure of Gastric Sleeve Surgery

Gastric sleeve surgery

Gastric sleeve surgery also called the Sleeve Gastrectomy has become a preferred option for the patients who seek out first-rate weight loss without any fuss; it is an uncomplicated procedure in which high maintenance is not required. However, before the surgery, there are certain things that patients must know before undergoing the surgery otherwise, it might lead to some complications.
Know the Surgeon
The most significant step is selecting the surgeon cautiously as he/she is going to be the one who has to do the job. Some people choose the surgeon according to the price offered, however, this is not the apt way to choose. A surgeon with the appropriate skills, training, and experience must be chosen. There must be a trust between the surgeon and the patient in order to carry out the surgery effortlessly.

Quit Smoking

The patient will have to quit smoking entirely, at least a month before the surgery. It is important for the success of the surgery to stop smoking, if not permanently, then at least temporarily.

Restrain from Alcohol

Unlike smoking, it is not mandatory to quit alcohol unless the patient is an addict. Nonetheless, in order to avoid upsetting the stomach before the surgery, alcohol consumption must not be done at least a week before the procedure.

Be Transparent with the Surgeon

Sharing the medical history of the patient with the surgeon is very crucial to minimize the complications. The information regarding regular medications and all the diseases and surgeries in the past must be shared since it is very useful in determining and preparing the course of action.

Follow Medication Recommendations

It is very important to follow the instructions of the surgeon and take the medicines accordingly. In case the patient suffers from a chronic disease, it must be informed to the surgeon in order to handle it aptly and avoid tricky situations later.

Preparing Physically

Physical preparation of the patient before surgery is possible by making some minor changes in daily routine such as starting to exercise regularly before surgery for at least 30 minutes. Though the exercise should not be much intense, just the minimal stretching exercises to keep the body up and going. Exercising will lead to the development of a better lung capacity which will lessen the chances of respiratory complications.

Preparing Mentally

The mental preparation is indeed the most significant step as it strengthens the patient to bear the pain. Also, a psychological evaluation of the patient is performed in order to find out that there is no contraindication to undertake the surgery procedure. Further, it is necessary that the patient is completely aware of the implications and the commitments to follow-up medical suggestions.

Eating Right

It is necessary for every patient to follow a pre operative diet given by the bariatric surgeon. The day before the surgery, a light meal is recommended and no food should be consumed after 8 pm and no liquids after midnight.

The Paperwork

The surgery may or may not be covered by the patient’s health insurance. In order to avoid any discrepancies later, make sure to complete the paperwork and get it approved beforehand.

Preoperative Evaluation before Surgery

The evaluation earlier than the surgery is nearly as vital as the surgery itself. An adequate preoperative evaluation will lower the chances of complications in the later stages and will increase the chances of the surgery being a success.
All these things should be kept in mind and cautiously taken care of in order to undergo an unproblematic and proper surgery with the assistance of a well trained surgeon.

Causes and Treatment for Influenza and Pneumonia Disease

Meaning and Etymology

Influenza A Virus or commonly known as flu is caused by an infectious disease called Influenza Virus. On observation, the symptoms might include high fever, sore throat, running nose, headache, muscle pain and fatigue. After two days of exposure to the virus, the symptoms start to become more noticeable than before.
Pneumonia on the other hand is a disease which causes inflammation of the lungs which primarily affects the alveoli. On observation, the symptoms might include dry cough, fever, breathing troubles and chest pain. Both cause due to different external factors which affect the immunity of the body. However, they share a similarity as they are both associated to causing problems in the respiratory system.


Effects of Roux-en-Y surgery

Roux-en-Y surgery

Do you want to lose weight? Are you the one vexed up trying all the types of weight loss programs? Then here is an amazing solution to make you shed your weight. Pause for a while!!! You are a good candidate for this if you are overweight, if you have tried all the dietary and life style changes, and if your body mass index is beyond 40.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an amazing weight loss procedure that has become popular these days. The procedure reduces the size of your tummy to a small pouch. It is performed by stapling a portion of the stomach.

How does it help me?

When your tummy size is reduced you may not eat much and will feel stomach full after taking limited quantities of food. Ultimately your fat intake and the calories you absorb from the diet are minimized. It helps you avoid an unwanted pile of calories.

What are the effects of RYGB?

You can expect about 60 to 70 percent of your body to lose weight within a span of 6 to 12 months.

RYGB is ideal for the people who are with larger BMI because the procedure often shows predictable results.

If you are a diabetic you will have a positive effect on diabetes. Due to the hormonal changes, post surgery may need a reduced dose of diabetic medication or sometimes you can also discontinue the medication, this needs a medical consultation.

RYGB shows a good effect in dealing with your high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels.

There may be nutritional deficiencies, so to beat up with it, you must go for regular follow-ups and check with the physician if the weight loss is appropriate.

RYGB shows positive effects on the individuals who have dumping syndrome, in which there will be an urge to consume high sugars and fats.

What are the unwanted effects of RYGB?

You can expect many unwanted effects after or during RYGB.

Post surgically you may experience bleeding which requires a blood transfusion.

There are chances of infection after the surgery for which you may have to use antibiotics or must undergo a reoperation.

You may require reoperation if any leakage is observed from the newly joint stomach and intestines. This may occur during the first few days after the operation.

  • You may develop ulcers in the newly formed pouch
  • Your organs may be damaged
  • You may have blood clots
  • You may suffer a chest infection

Is the weight loss ongoing?

Your weight loss can halt after a year; you must be prepared to accept this. After the procedure, you would experience body aches, dry skin, changes in the mood and hair fall as well.

Undergoing RYGB is useful for you. But after the procedure you must be on par with regular follow ups, you will have to see the dietician or nutritionist to beat up the nutritional deficiencies after the surgery. Therefore, it is recommended for you to undergo blood tests for every 6 months in order to keep an eye on your body’s vitamin and mineral stores.

Do you know about Laparoscopic or open surgery?


A vertical sleeve gastrectomy is surgical weight-loss procedures that can help patients treat obesity. In a vertical sleeve gastrectomy, a large portion of the stomach is removed, and only a small pouch is left behind.
The pouch left behind is smaller in size and makes you feel full after eating less food. Due to this reason, a significant weight loss is experienced. Therefore, in the aftermath of a vertical sleeve gastrectomy surgery, loose excess skin may trouble many patients.
Genetics plays a major role in determining the amount of loose skin you would experience. Exercise and nutrition can help prevent shaggy skin. Below are a few easy steps you can take before your surgery to prevent sagging:
Have patience:
Loose skin is a positive sign that you are losing weight. Wait for twelve months post your surgery to come up with a strategy to treat your shaggy skin.
Build muscles:
Build muscles to treat shaggy skin. Get actively involved in a regular exercise program. Target problematic areas specifically. Strength training gives loose skin something firm to lie on. The firmer your skin gets the better it looks.
Have a surgery:
Sometimes surgery is the only answer for the treatment of loose skin. Even if you are young and eat healthily there may be still changes that you won’t be able to get rid of all the loose skin.
Avoid the loss and gain cycle:
Avoid constant losing and gaining weight as it may make your condition worse. Constantly gaining and losing weight stretches skin out even more and destroys the elasticity of it.
Exercise daily and spend time outdoors or run. Use a treadmill for 10 minutes daily, if you cannot run outdoors. Wear a neoprene warming wrap when running it will help boost toning.
Do not wait:
If you talk to any doctor or midwife they will tell you it is wise to take action when the first signs of stretch marks show up. When the stretch marks are new and red treat them. Wear a neoprene wrap to increase firming in desired areas. Lift your arms and legs gently to get good results.
Lift weights:
Lift small weights to increase the toning of your arms. Lift the weights up until they are at the same level as your shoulders.
Eat foods that are low in fat and rich in vitamin A. Vitamin A can help the skin to regenerate healthy skin cells. Try food products rich in antioxidants like berries, pomegranate, and plums . Antioxidants help in maintaining a healthy skin.
Avoid anything with refined sugar and carbohydrates. Over -processed food can make your skin sag even more.
Drink enough water:
Water plays a crucial role in treating shaggy skin. Drink eight glasses of water daily. Water will increase circulation and helps hydrate skin and improve elasticity.
Contact a dermatologist:
Contact a dermatologist and ask for skin firming or tightening moisturizer. You can use these moisturizers all over your body and concentrate on troubled areas specifically.
Protect your skin from the sun:
Wear a sunscreen of SPF 40 or higher when going out in the sun. Sun damage contributes to the shaggy skin.
Weight gain is possible, even after Gastric Bypass:
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a surgery which is normally performed on a morbidly obese patient. Surgical reduction of fat is far more effective than conventional techniques. However, surgical intervention may be successful for a period of time. Patients sometimes gain the same amount of weight or more after surgery. It is one of the greatest fears of patients seeking weight-loss surgery.
It is not uncommon for a patient to come with stories of losing a significant amount of weight after the surgery but gaining even double the amount of weight. But, the good news is that post-operation you can maintain your weight loss.
It is important to keep in mind that obesity is a chronic disease that cannot be cured just by surgery. Surgery is a powerful tool for significant weight-loss, but it is important to maintain a strict diet to see long term results.
There are several reasons of weight regain after a weight loss surgery. If these reasons are addressed properly, you may be successful in maintaining your weight loss.
What causes weight gain after Gastric Bypass?
There are four reasons for weight gain after Gastric Bypass, which are:
• High-calorie diet
• Lack of exercise
• Stretching of the stomach pouch
Not engaging in the lifestyle changes is one of the major reasons for weight gains after surgery.

How Does Diabetes Lead To Heart Disease?

diabetes index

If you are a diabetic, then you should be cautious of heart diseases. People with diabetes are more prone to heart diseases when compared to the people without diabetes. Diabetes is one of the major risk factors for developing heart diseases.

Some statistics shows that about 68 percent of people with the age of 65 years or older who have diabetes tend to die of heart disease and about 16 percent of people die due to stroke. Having said that, diabetes is one of the seven preventable risk factors for developing many heart diseases, and can be managed with maintaining a proper level of blood glucose and blood cholesterol.

Heart disease:

Heart disease refers to a number of conditions which affects the heart and cause a drastic change in the normal functioning of heart.

Various types of heart diseases: Any change in the heart either it may be a structural change or a functional change leads to various types of heart disease.

  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Angina
  • Coronary artery disease (Atherosclerosis)
  • Myocardial infarction (Heart attack)
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Congestive heart failure


Diabetes mellitus is a cluster of metabolic conditions which is caused due to the increased amount of glucose in the blood (blood sugar), which may occur due to the decreased production of insulin or may be due to the resistance towards insulin.

Types of Diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • Type 2 diabetes also known as non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • Prediabetes
  • Gestational diabetes

In Type 1 diabetes mellitus, the pancreas produces only a little amount of insulin or no insulin at all due to the destruction of beta cells.

In Type 2 diabetes mellitus, there may be a resistance towards the insulin, leading to reduced intake of glucose by the cells.

Prediabetes is a reversible diabetic condition which is caused due to the elevation of glucose levels in blood. It is also called as borderline diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is a condition due to increased glucose levels in blood during pregnancy. The condition usually disappears after the delivery.

Connection between Diabetes and Heart disease:

In a person with normal blood vessel, the flow of blood is continuous and smooth due to the presences of nitrous oxide (NO). The nitrous oxide in blood vessel prevents the cells from sticking to the walls of blood vessel.

In type 2 diabetes, due to insulin resistance, the  nitrous oxide mechanism gets lost. In diabetic condition, the high levels of glucose, triglycerides and fatty acids in blood lead to plaque formation. This formation of plaque is a major reason for causing coronary artery disease or arthrosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis, causes stiffening of blood vessels, increasing the force of blood flow on the arterial walls, which leads to hypertension. Hypertension is a major risk factor for other heart related diseases like damage of blood vessels, stroke and heart attack.

Tips for a diabetic patient to avoid heart diseases:

  • Visit your physician regularly and get your blood glucose level and blood pressure levels checked.
  • Try to maintain a normal blood glucose level.
  • Maintain a normal blood pressure, the blood pressure shouldn’t exceed above 130/80 mmHg.
  • Drinking alcohol worsens diabetes and also leads to various heart diseases.
  • Say no to smoking.
  • Have a diet rich in fibers, it helps in controlling the level of blood glucose.
  • Stay away from foods high in calories and fats.
  • Don’t consume sugary foods.
  • Eat fish instead of red meat.
  • Make a habit of meditating daily.
  • Have a walk and perform all kind of physical activities which are good for health.
  • If you are overweight, try to lose weight and maintain a healthy BMI (Body mass index).
  • Limit the intake of salt, and consume it as recommended by your physician.

An Overview of Organ Transplantation

transplant images

Transplantation is a process that involves the transfer of human cells, tissues, or organs from the donor to a recipient. Organ transplantation is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of the damaged or injured organ from the recipient and replacement with a new functioning one. The different types of organ transplantation are heart, liver, lungs, kidney, intestine, and pancreas.

Go on reading to find out the types of organ transplant, organ donors, and its types.

  • Heart transplant: Heart is the hardest working muscle, which pumps blood throughout the body. People with heart diseases such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy or weakening of heart muscle may need a heart transplant.
  •  Kidney transplant: Kidney’s function is to remove wastes from the body, filter the blood, control the electrolyte balance, and regulate blood pressure. Kidney transplant becomes necessary due to inherited kidney disease such as poly cystic kidney disease. Diabetes and high blood pressure are also common cause of the kidney failure which makes transplantation necessary.
  •  Liver transplant: The liver functions to break down harmful substances, detoxify the body, and production of bile for digestion. Any viral infection, genetic disorders or even alcoholism may result in liver failure which leads to the necessity of liver transplantation (the diseased liver is removed and replaced with a healthy one).
  •  Lung transplant: A person can live a normal life, if the lung functions at least 30 percent. People with severe lung diseases such cystic fibrosis, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and emphysema in advanced stages may require lung transplant.
  • Pancreas transplant: The pancreas is a gland located just behind the stomach. It produces juice or enzymes that help in the breakdown of food. It also releases the hormone, insulin that helps to control blood sugar levels. People who have pancreas-related problems such as pancreatitis or inflammation of the pancreas, genetic disorder, cystic fibrosis, and pancreatic cancer may require pancreas transplant.
  •  Intestine transplant: This kind of transplant is rare and is usually done in combination with liver, stomach, and pancreas. People who have short bowel syndrome (caused by lack of function of the small intestine) may need an intestine transplant.

Organ donation is a process that involves the donation of organs to a living recipient (who is in need of a transplant). There are two types of organ donors such as:

  • Living donor– The living donor is the person decides to donate his or her organ to the person who in need of a transplant. Living donors have to undergo some medical testing as suggested by the doctors to be selected as the suitable donor.
  • Deceased donor-Deceased donors are those whose organs are harvested once they become brain-dead. For this type of transplant, the recipient has to wait till the suitable organ based on the recipient medical profile is available.

After removing the organ from the body, it is stored in a chemical solution. Before transplantation, the donated organ would be stored under controlled conditions, depending upon the varying time length of the organ such as a heart for 4-6 hours, liver for 12-24 hours, kidneys for 48-72 hours, and lung for 4-6 hours.

Before organ transplant, the doctor would suggests some medical test for checking the medical compatibility with donor.

The doctor would suggest taking some precautions after the surgery such as:

  • To avoid taking certain foods
  • To limit alcohol consumption and smoking

The doctor would suggest follow-up check-up to monitor the proper functioning of the organ. The person may lead a normal and healthy lifestyle after the organ transplant.

Ways Obesity And Hypertension Are Co-related


Obesity is highly linked with cardiovascular disease and hypertension. It is very essential to have both hypertension and weight under control in order to be healthy.

As per survey, excessive body weight is the main reason of around twenty eight percent cases of hypertension in women and twenty six percent in men. Obesity can also lead to coronary heart disease both in women and men. Obese persons tend to have increased fatty tissue which enhances their vascular resistance.
What is hypertension?

Hypertension indicates the pressure, which blood flow applies on the inner parts of the arteries. The disease of high blood pressure cannot be treated if the victim is not in good health.
Several kinds of hypertension:

Generally, there are two kinds of hypertension such as primary or essential hypertension and secondary hypertension. Mostly, people tend to be affected with essential hypertension.

Health care providers often fail to describe the specific reasons of essential hypertension. This condition can be caused by kidney problems, nutritional deficiency, infections, malnutrition, and consuming drugs.

The cases of secondary hypertension are quite common when compared to essential hypertension. This condition is a fusion of pheochromocytoma, kidney disease, sleep apnea syndrome, oral contraceptives, coarctation of the aorta and Cushing’s syndrome.
How to treat hypertension?

People affected by hypertension need to opt for regular health check up. They need to be on medications which are prescribed by the physicians to achieve normal blood pressure level. But it is essential to understand that every individual reacts separately to these medicines and therefore following a healthy lifestyle is a must.

Some common examples of high blood pressure medicine include Low dose diuretic, ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blocker.
Low dose diuretic is less costly when compared to the other types of medications of high blood pressure. This treatment has little or zero impact on lipid metabolism or glucose when compared to other drugs.
What are the risk factors of hypertension?

Abnormal obesity is one of the major risk factors of hypertension. Obesity can be measured by the BMI rate which uses height and weight as a parameter. Generally, the basic BMI rate is between 20 to 25 but an obese person is more likely to have a BMI rate which is more than 30. Apart from the BMI rate, the issue of fat distribution is also important for determining the factors of hypertension. Fat distribution in the abdominal trunk is termed as abdominal obesity. This condition is defined by a waist circumference greater than 102 cm.

How To Prevent Childhood Obesity?


Obesity is a serious health concern which triggers other ailments like heart diseases, diabetes, joint ailments, sleep apnea, etc. Obesity is troublesome and its cause goes down to a low nutrient diet and lack of physical activity. For some, it is genetic and hard to control while others develop it with age. Many children become obese while growing up and this is a result of lack of adult guidance during childhood and adolescent years.

Therefore, to keep your child away from this life-threatening medical condition, you need to take steps rather than ignoring the slow transition of your kids towards obesity.

Keep your kid’s body regulated by incorporating these simple tips:

1) Inculcate in your kids a habit of eating salad and having some water right before their meals. The good part of this activity is that half their hunger will be fulfilled in eating fibre rich fruits and veggies and having water will keep them hydrated and promote to eat less.

2) Foster a habit of eating in small proportions after intervals among your kids. Instead of eating heavy meals three times a day and munching snacks, crisps and junk other time, it is better to tell your kids to eat in intervals. They can have rounds of fruits, liquid diets, soups, muesli, dry fruits, etc in regulated amounts and after frequent breaks.

3) Encourage your children to take part in outdoor games and recreation by opening the doors of outside world for them. Kids are more receptive to fun games, and inculcating this habit is better before they get addicted to video games and social media.

4) Kids are more active and lively and seem to not get tired. This is reflected through their activities in the age of 1-3 years. The same can go on for life if parents guide children properly. Do not let your kids develop a habit of sitting in front of desktops and phones. Laziness is the path to obesity.

5) Mentoring your kids to choose their drinks wisely is the need of the hour. Encourage your children to have drinks that are low on calorie and sugar content. Fizzy drinks and sugar sweetened beverages trigger obesity and adversely affect those who are already overweight.

6) One presumption is that breakfast should be skipped so as to reduce fat intake. This is a big myth. Skipping breakfast leads to obesity as the person ends up eating a lot more than needed during the lunch time.

7) Promote eating together as a family. When a family eats together, the children are less likely to eat the snacks or collation meals.

8) Fast food or outside food is last on the list because many people already know that it leads to obesity. This is so because these fats are difficult to break down.

Hence, it is better to incorporate these good dietary habits in your regime than regret later because obesity can shorten your kid’s lifespan. Children are in a phase in their life when their bodies are still developing and inculcating healthy habits at this point will pay of well into adult life.