DIETARY GUIDELINES AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY

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Bariatric surgery, also known as gastric bypass surgery is a life saving procedure for an obese person. It reduces weight and allows the stomach to heal. The diet also helps the stomach to get used to small amounts of food intake. Following a proper diet after the surgery helps in the successful completion of the surgery.

Following are some guidelines that should be followed to speed up the recovery after a bariatric surgery.

DIET BEFORE SURGERY

  • Eating foods rich in protein and having plenty of fluids for about 7-14 days are recommended.
  • Individuals should not consume more than 1000 calories per day.

DIET AFTER SURGERY

Diet for the 1st week

  • Clear liquids like water, fat free milk, and fat free broth are recommended for about 1 to 2 days.

Diet for 2nd-4th week

  • Food rich in protein and protein shakes should be consumed with a daily in-take of 60-70 grams of protein.
  • Multivitamins in chewable or liquid form can be taken to avoid nutrient deficiencies.
  • Avoid having caffeine and carbonated beverages.
  • Calcium citrate supplements are recommended in a dose range of 400mg to 600mg.

Diet for 4th-5th week

  • Soft meals (rich in protein) and cooked vegetables are included in the diet and the calorie intake should be probably not more than 500 calories per day.
  • Protein diet which include lean chicken, lean turkey, fish, white eggs non- fat cheese and vegetables like potatoes, carrots, squash, green beans, tomatoes, cucumber and avocados are recommended.
  • Multivitamins and calcium supplements may be recommended.
  • Vitamin D3 and B12 supplements may be recommended.

 

Diet for week 6

  • The solid food consisting of proteins, vegetables, low amount of grains and a little refine sugar are recommended.
  • Previous intake of protein, vitamin supplements and clear liquids should be same.
  • Include raw and cooked fruits, vegetables in the diet.
  • Foods which are difficult to digest like beef, shellfish, grapes, nuts, whole grains, corns, beans should be taken with caution.
  • Total calorie intake per day should be in the range of 800 to 1200 and up to 1500 for 18 months.

Following are the general guidelines that should be followed include:

  • Eat healthy food
  • Avoid having spicy and greasy food
  • Slowly introduce the new foods
  • Don’t eat junk food, fast food
  • Avoid drinking whole milk
  • Drink plenty of water

Foods which are consumed with caution include:

  • Milk products that may result in problems like bloating, gas, cramps.
  • Carbohydrates and starches that may result in blockage of digestive system.
  • Vegetables and fruits which are difficult to digest may result in problems like vomiting and abdominal cramps.
  • Tough meat that may get stuck while swallowing and may result in vomiting.

Foods to be avoided include:

Foods that should be eliminated from a diet include oily food, food containing saturated fat, sweets and sugar containing products. Avoiding the consumption of alcohol will be helpful.

Include physical exercise in your routine. Start with walking; running and gradually take up weight lifting and aerobics. Ensure dedicating at least 30 minutes of you time in any kind of exercise for 5 to 7 times in a week. Follow the diet and keep an eye on your calorie count.

Gastric bypass surgery is safe and an effective weight loss surgery. Bariatric surgery will result in successful long term weight loss. Studies have shown that 90% of the people suffering from obesity have seen drastic results after undergoing a bariatric surgery. It also helps in improving the overall quality of life in terms of health and longevity. The diets will help in speeding up the recovery process. Follow these dietary guidelines to stay healthy and happy.

Difference between Gastric Sleeve and Lap-Band Surgery

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In today’s world, obesity is one of the most common chronic conditions which is in need of novel treatment modalities and preventive measures. If lifestyle, eating habits, and exercise routines haven’t helped you to lose weight, bariatric surgery or weight-loss surgery could be another option. There are different types of weight loss surgeries that can help you to achieve your long-term goal.

You must consult your doctor regarding the type of weight-loss surgery that is suitable for you. Gastric sleeve and laparoscopic band surgery are the two common types of surgical procedures that aid in reducing the weight. Before choosing a surgery, you must be aware of the procedure, risks and benefits that help you to make an appropriate decision.

What is the difference between gastric sleeve and lap-band surgery?

In gastric sleeve surgery, the surgeon removes 60 to 80 % of your stomach leaving a banana-shaped portion of the stomach. Although it is an invasive procedure, it provides superior weight loss in the first 10 months of the surgery.

In lap-band surgery, the surgeon inserts an inflatable lap band around the stomach that divides the stomach into two portions (small upper section and large lower section). The surgeon adjusts the size of the band by inflating or deflating it using a port under the skin. Thus, the procedure slows down the emptying of the stomach leading to a dramatical restriction of the food intake.

Who is eligible?

Gastric sleeve surgery is recommended for the morbidly obese patients whose body mass index is greater than 40. Lap-band surgery is recommended for the individuals with a body mass index of greater than 30.

Is the procedure reversible?

The lap-band surgery does not involve incisions or the removal of the part of the stomach, therefore, procedure can be reversed by removing the band. But in the gastric sleeve surgery, the surgeon removes a part of the stomach which cannot be replaced again.

How it works to help lose weight?

With lap-band surgery, the formation of smaller pouch and the band, limits the amount of food intake and creates satiety. Reduction in the food intake will stop storing excess calories and uses the fat for energy supply. Similarly, gastric sleeve surgery also limits the food intake and reduces the hunger sensation.

What are the benefits and risks?

  • Lap-band surgery: The risks include infection, stoma obstruction, frequent adjustments of the band, and band slippage. The procedure has many benefits such as quick recovery period, non-invasive procedure, reversible procedure, low risk of malnutrition, and low rate of complications.
  • Gastric sleeve surgery: The general surgical risks associated with gastric sleeve include formation of blood clots, bleeding, infection, and pneumonia. Also, the procedure can’t be reversed and there is an increased risk of leakage at stomach suture. The benefits include reduction of hunger and do not require a device to be implanted in the body.

Weight loss surgery has been proved to be effective in producing significant and sustained weight loss. While opting for one of the surgeries, you must consider whether you are looking for a temporary or permanent solution for weight loss. Considering a weight loss surgery alone for losing weight isn’t enough. For long-term results, you must follow a healthy lifestyle, diet and perform regular exercise.

Effects of Roux-en-Y surgery

Roux-en-Y surgery

Do you want to lose weight? Are you the one vexed up trying all the types of weight loss programs? Then here is an amazing solution to make you shed your weight. Pause for a while!!! You are a good candidate for this if you are overweight, if you have tried all the dietary and life style changes, and if your body mass index is beyond 40.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an amazing weight loss procedure that has become popular these days. The procedure reduces the size of your tummy to a small pouch. It is performed by stapling a portion of the stomach.

How does it help me?

When your tummy size is reduced you may not eat much and will feel stomach full after taking limited quantities of food. Ultimately your fat intake and the calories you absorb from the diet are minimized. It helps you avoid an unwanted pile of calories.

What are the effects of RYGB?

You can expect about 60 to 70 percent of your body to lose weight within a span of 6 to 12 months.

RYGB is ideal for the people who are with larger BMI because the procedure often shows predictable results.

If you are a diabetic you will have a positive effect on diabetes. Due to the hormonal changes, post surgery may need a reduced dose of diabetic medication or sometimes you can also discontinue the medication, this needs a medical consultation.

RYGB shows a good effect in dealing with your high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels.

There may be nutritional deficiencies, so to beat up with it, you must go for regular follow-ups and check with the physician if the weight loss is appropriate.

RYGB shows positive effects on the individuals who have dumping syndrome, in which there will be an urge to consume high sugars and fats.

What are the unwanted effects of RYGB?

You can expect many unwanted effects after or during RYGB.

Post surgically you may experience bleeding which requires a blood transfusion.

There are chances of infection after the surgery for which you may have to use antibiotics or must undergo a reoperation.

You may require reoperation if any leakage is observed from the newly joint stomach and intestines. This may occur during the first few days after the operation.

  • You may develop ulcers in the newly formed pouch
  • Your organs may be damaged
  • You may have blood clots
  • You may suffer a chest infection

Is the weight loss ongoing?

Your weight loss can halt after a year; you must be prepared to accept this. After the procedure, you would experience body aches, dry skin, changes in the mood and hair fall as well.

Undergoing RYGB is useful for you. But after the procedure you must be on par with regular follow ups, you will have to see the dietician or nutritionist to beat up the nutritional deficiencies after the surgery. Therefore, it is recommended for you to undergo blood tests for every 6 months in order to keep an eye on your body’s vitamin and mineral stores.

Do you know about Laparoscopic or open surgery?

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A vertical sleeve gastrectomy is surgical weight-loss procedures that can help patients treat obesity. In a vertical sleeve gastrectomy, a large portion of the stomach is removed, and only a small pouch is left behind.
The pouch left behind is smaller in size and makes you feel full after eating less food. Due to this reason, a significant weight loss is experienced. Therefore, in the aftermath of a vertical sleeve gastrectomy surgery, loose excess skin may trouble many patients.
Genetics plays a major role in determining the amount of loose skin you would experience. Exercise and nutrition can help prevent shaggy skin. Below are a few easy steps you can take before your surgery to prevent sagging:
Have patience:
Loose skin is a positive sign that you are losing weight. Wait for twelve months post your surgery to come up with a strategy to treat your shaggy skin.
Build muscles:
Build muscles to treat shaggy skin. Get actively involved in a regular exercise program. Target problematic areas specifically. Strength training gives loose skin something firm to lie on. The firmer your skin gets the better it looks.
Have a surgery:
Sometimes surgery is the only answer for the treatment of loose skin. Even if you are young and eat healthily there may be still changes that you won’t be able to get rid of all the loose skin.
Avoid the loss and gain cycle:
Avoid constant losing and gaining weight as it may make your condition worse. Constantly gaining and losing weight stretches skin out even more and destroys the elasticity of it.
Exercise:
Exercise daily and spend time outdoors or run. Use a treadmill for 10 minutes daily, if you cannot run outdoors. Wear a neoprene warming wrap when running it will help boost toning.
Do not wait:
If you talk to any doctor or midwife they will tell you it is wise to take action when the first signs of stretch marks show up. When the stretch marks are new and red treat them. Wear a neoprene wrap to increase firming in desired areas. Lift your arms and legs gently to get good results.
Lift weights:
Lift small weights to increase the toning of your arms. Lift the weights up until they are at the same level as your shoulders.
Nutrition:
Eat foods that are low in fat and rich in vitamin A. Vitamin A can help the skin to regenerate healthy skin cells. Try food products rich in antioxidants like berries, pomegranate, and plums . Antioxidants help in maintaining a healthy skin.
Avoid anything with refined sugar and carbohydrates. Over -processed food can make your skin sag even more.
Drink enough water:
Water plays a crucial role in treating shaggy skin. Drink eight glasses of water daily. Water will increase circulation and helps hydrate skin and improve elasticity.
Contact a dermatologist:
Contact a dermatologist and ask for skin firming or tightening moisturizer. You can use these moisturizers all over your body and concentrate on troubled areas specifically.
Protect your skin from the sun:
Wear a sunscreen of SPF 40 or higher when going out in the sun. Sun damage contributes to the shaggy skin.
Weight gain is possible, even after Gastric Bypass:
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a surgery which is normally performed on a morbidly obese patient. Surgical reduction of fat is far more effective than conventional techniques. However, surgical intervention may be successful for a period of time. Patients sometimes gain the same amount of weight or more after surgery. It is one of the greatest fears of patients seeking weight-loss surgery.
It is not uncommon for a patient to come with stories of losing a significant amount of weight after the surgery but gaining even double the amount of weight. But, the good news is that post-operation you can maintain your weight loss.
It is important to keep in mind that obesity is a chronic disease that cannot be cured just by surgery. Surgery is a powerful tool for significant weight-loss, but it is important to maintain a strict diet to see long term results.
There are several reasons of weight regain after a weight loss surgery. If these reasons are addressed properly, you may be successful in maintaining your weight loss.
What causes weight gain after Gastric Bypass?
There are four reasons for weight gain after Gastric Bypass, which are:
• High-calorie diet
• Lack of exercise
• Stretching of the stomach pouch
Not engaging in the lifestyle changes is one of the major reasons for weight gains after surgery.

How Does Diabetes Lead To Heart Disease?

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If you are a diabetic, then you should be cautious of heart diseases. People with diabetes are more prone to heart diseases when compared to the people without diabetes. Diabetes is one of the major risk factors for developing heart diseases.

Some statistics shows that about 68 percent of people with the age of 65 years or older who have diabetes tend to die of heart disease and about 16 percent of people die due to stroke. Having said that, diabetes is one of the seven preventable risk factors for developing many heart diseases, and can be managed with maintaining a proper level of blood glucose and blood cholesterol.

Heart disease:

Heart disease refers to a number of conditions which affects the heart and cause a drastic change in the normal functioning of heart.

Various types of heart diseases: Any change in the heart either it may be a structural change or a functional change leads to various types of heart disease.

  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Angina
  • Coronary artery disease (Atherosclerosis)
  • Myocardial infarction (Heart attack)
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Congestive heart failure

Diabetes:

Diabetes mellitus is a cluster of metabolic conditions which is caused due to the increased amount of glucose in the blood (blood sugar), which may occur due to the decreased production of insulin or may be due to the resistance towards insulin.

Types of Diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • Type 2 diabetes also known as non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • Prediabetes
  • Gestational diabetes

In Type 1 diabetes mellitus, the pancreas produces only a little amount of insulin or no insulin at all due to the destruction of beta cells.

In Type 2 diabetes mellitus, there may be a resistance towards the insulin, leading to reduced intake of glucose by the cells.

Prediabetes is a reversible diabetic condition which is caused due to the elevation of glucose levels in blood. It is also called as borderline diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is a condition due to increased glucose levels in blood during pregnancy. The condition usually disappears after the delivery.

Connection between Diabetes and Heart disease:

In a person with normal blood vessel, the flow of blood is continuous and smooth due to the presences of nitrous oxide (NO). The nitrous oxide in blood vessel prevents the cells from sticking to the walls of blood vessel.

In type 2 diabetes, due to insulin resistance, the  nitrous oxide mechanism gets lost. In diabetic condition, the high levels of glucose, triglycerides and fatty acids in blood lead to plaque formation. This formation of plaque is a major reason for causing coronary artery disease or arthrosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis, causes stiffening of blood vessels, increasing the force of blood flow on the arterial walls, which leads to hypertension. Hypertension is a major risk factor for other heart related diseases like damage of blood vessels, stroke and heart attack.

Tips for a diabetic patient to avoid heart diseases:

  • Visit your physician regularly and get your blood glucose level and blood pressure levels checked.
  • Try to maintain a normal blood glucose level.
  • Maintain a normal blood pressure, the blood pressure shouldn’t exceed above 130/80 mmHg.
  • Drinking alcohol worsens diabetes and also leads to various heart diseases.
  • Say no to smoking.
  • Have a diet rich in fibers, it helps in controlling the level of blood glucose.
  • Stay away from foods high in calories and fats.
  • Don’t consume sugary foods.
  • Eat fish instead of red meat.
  • Make a habit of meditating daily.
  • Have a walk and perform all kind of physical activities which are good for health.
  • If you are overweight, try to lose weight and maintain a healthy BMI (Body mass index).
  • Limit the intake of salt, and consume it as recommended by your physician.

An Overview of Organ Transplantation

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Transplantation is a process that involves the transfer of human cells, tissues, or organs from the donor to a recipient. Organ transplantation is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of the damaged or injured organ from the recipient and replacement with a new functioning one. The different types of organ transplantation are heart, liver, lungs, kidney, intestine, and pancreas.

Go on reading to find out the types of organ transplant, organ donors, and its types.

  • Heart transplant: Heart is the hardest working muscle, which pumps blood throughout the body. People with heart diseases such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy or weakening of heart muscle may need a heart transplant.
  •  Kidney transplant: Kidney’s function is to remove wastes from the body, filter the blood, control the electrolyte balance, and regulate blood pressure. Kidney transplant becomes necessary due to inherited kidney disease such as poly cystic kidney disease. Diabetes and high blood pressure are also common cause of the kidney failure which makes transplantation necessary.
  •  Liver transplant: The liver functions to break down harmful substances, detoxify the body, and production of bile for digestion. Any viral infection, genetic disorders or even alcoholism may result in liver failure which leads to the necessity of liver transplantation (the diseased liver is removed and replaced with a healthy one).
  •  Lung transplant: A person can live a normal life, if the lung functions at least 30 percent. People with severe lung diseases such cystic fibrosis, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and emphysema in advanced stages may require lung transplant.
  • Pancreas transplant: The pancreas is a gland located just behind the stomach. It produces juice or enzymes that help in the breakdown of food. It also releases the hormone, insulin that helps to control blood sugar levels. People who have pancreas-related problems such as pancreatitis or inflammation of the pancreas, genetic disorder, cystic fibrosis, and pancreatic cancer may require pancreas transplant.
  •  Intestine transplant: This kind of transplant is rare and is usually done in combination with liver, stomach, and pancreas. People who have short bowel syndrome (caused by lack of function of the small intestine) may need an intestine transplant.

Organ donation is a process that involves the donation of organs to a living recipient (who is in need of a transplant). There are two types of organ donors such as:

  • Living donor– The living donor is the person decides to donate his or her organ to the person who in need of a transplant. Living donors have to undergo some medical testing as suggested by the doctors to be selected as the suitable donor.
  • Deceased donor-Deceased donors are those whose organs are harvested once they become brain-dead. For this type of transplant, the recipient has to wait till the suitable organ based on the recipient medical profile is available.

After removing the organ from the body, it is stored in a chemical solution. Before transplantation, the donated organ would be stored under controlled conditions, depending upon the varying time length of the organ such as a heart for 4-6 hours, liver for 12-24 hours, kidneys for 48-72 hours, and lung for 4-6 hours.

Before organ transplant, the doctor would suggests some medical test for checking the medical compatibility with donor.

The doctor would suggest taking some precautions after the surgery such as:

  • To avoid taking certain foods
  • To limit alcohol consumption and smoking

The doctor would suggest follow-up check-up to monitor the proper functioning of the organ. The person may lead a normal and healthy lifestyle after the organ transplant.

Ways Obesity And Hypertension Are Co-related

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Obesity is highly linked with cardiovascular disease and hypertension. It is very essential to have both hypertension and weight under control in order to be healthy.

As per survey, excessive body weight is the main reason of around twenty eight percent cases of hypertension in women and twenty six percent in men. Obesity can also lead to coronary heart disease both in women and men. Obese persons tend to have increased fatty tissue which enhances their vascular resistance.
What is hypertension?

Hypertension indicates the pressure, which blood flow applies on the inner parts of the arteries. The disease of high blood pressure cannot be treated if the victim is not in good health.
Several kinds of hypertension:

Generally, there are two kinds of hypertension such as primary or essential hypertension and secondary hypertension. Mostly, people tend to be affected with essential hypertension.

Health care providers often fail to describe the specific reasons of essential hypertension. This condition can be caused by kidney problems, nutritional deficiency, infections, malnutrition, and consuming drugs.

The cases of secondary hypertension are quite common when compared to essential hypertension. This condition is a fusion of pheochromocytoma, kidney disease, sleep apnea syndrome, oral contraceptives, coarctation of the aorta and Cushing’s syndrome.
How to treat hypertension?

People affected by hypertension need to opt for regular health check up. They need to be on medications which are prescribed by the physicians to achieve normal blood pressure level. But it is essential to understand that every individual reacts separately to these medicines and therefore following a healthy lifestyle is a must.

Some common examples of high blood pressure medicine include Low dose diuretic, ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blocker.
Low dose diuretic is less costly when compared to the other types of medications of high blood pressure. This treatment has little or zero impact on lipid metabolism or glucose when compared to other drugs.
What are the risk factors of hypertension?

Abnormal obesity is one of the major risk factors of hypertension. Obesity can be measured by the BMI rate which uses height and weight as a parameter. Generally, the basic BMI rate is between 20 to 25 but an obese person is more likely to have a BMI rate which is more than 30. Apart from the BMI rate, the issue of fat distribution is also important for determining the factors of hypertension. Fat distribution in the abdominal trunk is termed as abdominal obesity. This condition is defined by a waist circumference greater than 102 cm.